JSI staff regularly publish their research and results from work in peer-reviewed journals. This section provides a brief abstract with a link to the journal where you can read more and either download or order the article, depending on the journal.
Reducing the burden of diarrhea among children under five years old: Lessons learned from oral rehydration therapy corner program implementation in Northern Nigeria in Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
Oral rehydration theraphy (ORT) corners were introduced at health facilities in the Northern Nigerian states of Bauchi and Sokoto to treat sick children and equip caregivers with skills in case management of diarrhea and diarrhea prevention. Researches from the Targeted States High Impact (TSHIP) project, including Olugbenga Oguntunde, Amos Paul Bassi, Mohammed Auwal Ibrahim, Saba'atu Danladi, William Sambisa, and Nurudeen Lawal, studied the effect of facility-based ORT corners on caregivers' knowledge and case management skills and examined whether ORT activities were conducted according to protocol.
Study results showed that ORT corner users were more knowledgeable in diarrhea prevention and management and demonstrated better skills for managing diarrhea than ORT corner non-users. The research methods, findings, and recommendations have been published in the May 2015 issue of the Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition.
The gas cylinder, the motorcycle and the village health team member: a proof-of-concept study for the use of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach to strengthen the routine immunization system in Uganda in Implementation Science, Vol. 10
The Africa Routine Immunization Systems Essentials-System Innovation (ARISE-SI) initiative assessed the application of the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach for generating local solutions to strengthen RI systems in Masaka District, Uganda. Assessment was made through quantitative and qualitative methods and found that barriers to routine immunization, including lack of back up gas cylinders at facilities, inadequate transportation, and underutilized village health teams, were successfully addressed through the Microsystems Quality Improvement Approach. JSI's Lea Ayers LaFave co-authored the article based on the ARISE-SI assessment with researchers from the Darmouth Institute for Health Policy and Clinical Practice, Dartmouth's Geisel School of Medicine, Loma Linda University School of Medicine and the Makerere University School of Public Health.
Read the full article at Implementation Science
Trends in childbirth with no one present in Nigeria between 2003 and 2013 in International Journal of Women's Health, Vol. 7
Nigeria has one of the highest maternal mortality rates in the world. Contributing to this statistic is the high percentage of births that take place at home without the presence of a skilled birth attendant. Researchers, including JSI's Bolaji Fapohunda and Nosa Orobaton, examined pooled data sets from the 2003, 2008, and 2013 Nigerian Demographic and Health Surveys to document trends in women delivering at home with no one present and identify unifying characteristics of these women.
Study results indicated that delivery with no one present declined by 30% overall between 2003 and 2013, however there was a 27% increase in births with no one present in Nigeria's North West region. Age, income, and religious practices also emerged as factors in determining the likelihood that a woman would deliver at home with no one present. Findings also suggest a stagnation in the decline of unattended births in Nigeria; researchers call for the implementation of interventions to ensure timely access to and use of skilled obstetric care to reduce maternal mortality and morbidity.
Read the full article at International Journal of Women's Health
The Effect of Access to Contraceptive Services on Injectable Use and Demand for Family Planning in Malawi in International Perspectives on Sexual and Reproductive Health
One of the most direct ways to reduce maternal mortality rates in developing countries is to address unmet need for contraception - that is, enable women who want to avoid or delay pregnancy to access modern family planning methods. Understanding the barriers to this access is therefore critical to reducing maternal mortality.
To better understand these barriers, JSI staff from the USAID | DELIVER PROJECT and members of the MEASURE Evaluation team looked at what modern mapping software and logistics data reveal about how women in Malawi respond to the availability of contraceptive services in their local environment.
Transactional Sex Among Men Who Have Sex With Men in Latin America: Economic, Sociodemographic, and Psychosocial Factors in American Journal of Public Health
Researchers, including JSI's Stewart Landers (Director of JSI Health Services, Boston) assessed factors associated with engagement in transactional sex among men who have sex with men recruited from one of the largest internet sites for men seeking social or sexual interaction with other men in Latin America. Factors were analyzed by way of multilevel regression models in 17 Latin American Countries. Research findings showed that higher country-level unemployment was associated with increased odds of transactional sex. A correlation between interpersonal or individual factors, such as self-reported HIv or sexually transmitted infection, intimate partner violence, and sexual compulsivity, and elevated odds of engagement in transactional sex was also found.
Engaging Communities With a Simple Tool to Help Increase Immunization Coverage in Global Health: Policy and Practice
The level of vaccination coverage in a given community depends on both service factors and the degree to which the public understands and trusts the immunization process. This article describes an approach that aims to raise awareness and boost demand. Developed in India, the “My Village Is My Home” (MVMH) tool, known as Uma Imunizasaun (UI) in Timor-Leste, is a poster-sized material used by volunteers and health workers to record the births and vaccination dates of every infant in a community. Introduction of the tool in 5 districts of India and in 7 initial villages in Timor-Leste allowed community leaders, volunteers, and health workers to monitor the vaccination status of every young child and guided reminder and motivational visits.
In India, pilot communities had 80% or higher coverage of identified and eligible children for all vaccines. In comparison, overall coverage in the respective districts during the same time period was much lower, at 49% to 69%. In Timor-Leste, both the number of infants identified and immunized rose substantially with use of the tool compared with the previous year. The experiences in both countries suggest that “My Village Is My Home” is a promising tool that has the potential to broaden program coverage by marshalling both community residents and health workers to track individual children's vaccinations. Three states in India have adopted the tool, and Timor-Leste had also planned to scale-up the initiative.
Glob Health Sci Pract 2015;3(1):117-125.
Mental health of youth orphaned due to AIDS in South Africa: biological and supportive links to caregivers in Vulnerable Children and Youth Studies: An International Interdisciplinary Journal for Research, Policy and Care
In South Africa, over two million children have lost at least one parent to HIV. Youth who are orphaned by the AIDS epidemic have significantly higher levels of depression, anxiety, and post-traumatic stress than non-orphaned youth, or orphans whose parents died from other causes.
Researchers, including JSI's Melissa Sharer, explored the biological and social support relationship between youth orphaned by HIV/AIDS and their caregivers to identify factors related to positive mental health outcomes. 254 orphaned youths were selected from a 2009 cross-sectional survey to examine caregiver relationships and their affect on the mental health of the youth. Download the full article for research methodology and findings.