JSI staff regularly publish their research and results from work in peer-reviewed journals. This section provides a brief abstract with a link to the journal where you can read more and either download or order the article, depending on the journal.
Sex and Gender in the US Health Surveillance System: A Call to Action in American Journal of Public Health, Vol. 104, No. 6
Youth Risk Behavior Survey (YRBS) data have exposed significant sexual orientation disparities in health. Interest in examining the health of transgender youths, whose gender identities or expressions are not fully congruent with their assigned sex at birth, highlights limitations of the YRBS and the broader US health surveillance system.
JSI Senior Consultant Stewart Landers contributed to the mixed-methods Massachusetts Gender Measures Project to develop and cognitively test measures for adolescent health surveillance survey that produced a promising measure of transgender status.
This commentary, co-authored by Landers and based on the aforementioned research, defines the need for sex and gender measurement research, and summarizes the data and conclusions drawn from the Massachusetts Gender Measures Project.
Patient-stated preferences regarding volume-related risk mitigation strategies for hemodialysis in Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, June 2014
JSI Senior Research Scientist Tom Mangione contributed to a study into patient preferences toward different strategies used to mitigate fluid-related symptoms following hemodialysis. The strategies compared included dietary restriction, treatment time extension, more frequent dialysis, and wearable ultrafiltration devices. Results from the 588-patient survey showed that, while those who were more bothered by fluid-related symptoms were willing to engage in more fluid-mitigating strategies, generally patients were reluctant to extend treatment time in order to reduce symptoms. Subscribe to the Clinical Journal of the American Society of Nephrology to view the abstract and full article.
Scaling up voluntary medical male circumcision (VMMC) to 80% of men aged 15–49 within five years could avert 3.4 million new HIV infections in Eastern and Southern Africa by 2025. Since 2009, Tanzania and Zimbabwe have rapidly expanded VMMC services through different delivery (fixed, outreach or mobile) and intensity (routine services, campaign) models. Three JSI staff members, Amelia Rock, Natasha Kanagat, Sophia Magalona, contributed to a review that describes the modality and intensity of VMMC services and its influence on the number and age of clients.
Drivers of routine immunization coverage improvement in Africa: findings from district-level case studies in Health Policy and Planning 2014; 1-11
JSI staff and the ARISE project conducted in-depth case studies to gain a deeper understanding as to why routine immunization coverage improves in some settings in Africa and not in others. In-depth case studies were used to determine pathways to routine immunization coverage improvement by comparing immunization programme experience in 12 districts in three countries. Research was conducted in Ethiopia, Cameroon and Ghana. Findings emphasize the critical role of implementation strategies and the need for locally skilled managers that are capable of tailoring strategies to specific settings and community needs. The case studies are unique in their focus on the positive drivers of change and the identification of pathways to coverage improvement, an approach that should be considered in future studies and routine assessments of district-level immunization system performance.
Spatial Patterns in Domestic Violence and HIV Prevalence in Nigeria in Journal of Therapy and Management in HIV Infection, Volume 2, Number 1, February 2014
Using the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey and the 2010 ANC Sentinel Surveillance survey, JSI Senior M&E Advisor Kola Azeez Oyediran and JSI GIS Advisor/Data Analyst Marc Cunningham explore the spatial patterns of domestic violence and HIV prevalence between states in Nigeria.
Oyediran and Cunningham both work on the USAID-funded, MEASURE Evaluation project. MEASURE Evaluation implements and facilitates state-of-the-art methods for and approaches to improving monitoring and evaluation and data use to improve global health and well-being.
In this article, Oyediran and Cunningham found women in states with a high HIV prevalence rate had either experienced physical and/or sexual violence from their spouses. They call for a concurrently addressing domestic violence and HIV prevention, as well as, a further exploration of the causal relationships between domestic violence and health outcomes, especially HIV infections, in Nigeria. Oyediran&Cunningham/2014.
The quality–coverage gap in antenatal care: toward better measurement of effective coverage in Journal of Global Health Science and Practice February 2014, Volume 2, Issue 1
Alexis D’Agostino, JSI Monitoring and Evaluation Analyst, collaborated with Save the Children’s Stephen Hodgins to analyze the indicators used to measure antenatal care coverage.
The proportion of pregnant women receiving 4 or more antenatal care visits (ANC 4+) is used prominently as a global benchmark indicator to track maternal health program performance. This has contributed to an inappropriate focus on the number of contacts rather than on the content and process of care.
Hodgins and D’Agostino analyzed data from forty-one countries to determine coverage of specific elements of antenatal care and calculate the gap between expected services received over four visits, and services actually received (the quality-coverage gap). The analysis uncovered significant gaps in the provision of several antenatal care services, most prominently malaria prevention.
Based on the results of their analysis, Hodgins and D’Agostino argue for the adoption of a summary indicator that better reflects the content of care in maternal health programs.
Factors influencing the selection of delivery with no one present in Northern Nigeria: implications for policy and programs in "International Journal of Women's Health Volume 2014:6 Pages 171 - 183"
Nigeria ranks among the nations with the highest mortality rates in the world. In this study, JSI's Bolaji M. Fapohunda and Nosa Orobaton, who work on the Nigeria Targeted States High Impact Project (TSHIP), examine the effects of demographic, socioeconomic and women’s autonomy factors on the utilization of delivery assistance in Sokoto State, Nigeria, through data obtained from the 2008 Demographic and Health Survey (DHS). The study revealed that delivery with no one present and with unskilled attendance accounted for roughly 95% of all births in Sokoto State.
This study demonstrates that expectant mothers are willing to obtain care from a provider, and their odds of using accessible, affordable, skilled delivery is high, should such an option be presented. Fapohunda and Orobaton share recommended solutions to improve access to, and increase the affordability of, skilled health attendants.
Changing life jacket wearing behavior: An evaluation of two approaches in The Journal of Public Health Policy
The majority of boating-related drowning fatalities in the U.S. result from capsizes and falls overboard. As these events unexpectedly place boaters in the water and allow little or no time for the victim to find, put on, and fasten a life jacket, it is important for boaters to not only carry life jackets on board, but also to wear them while boating. In the United States Coast Guard's (USCG) annual accident and fatality report, from 1999 to 2011, there were 9212 fatalities, of which 71 per cent resulted from drowning. On average, 87 per cent of the drowning victims were not wearing a life jacket.
In efforts to promote boating safety, USCG, administrators of state boating laws, and the United States Army Corps of Engineers (USACE) have supported strategies to increase life jacket/personal flotation device wear by recreational boaters. In this article, we report on the evaluation of two distinct approaches: a multi-strategy marketing campaign to promote voluntary life jacket wear in the Central California Delta region and a demonstration project to gauge the impact of mandatory life jacket wear regulations at USACE Mississippi lakes.
Before the campaign in the Delta, adult wear was 8.5 per cent, increasing to 12.1 per cent during the first year, dipping to 9.4 per cent during the second year, and rising slightly to 10.5 per cent 3 plus years after the campaign. Before mandatory regulations at USACE lakes, adult wear was 13.7 per cent, increasing to 75.6 per cent during the first year, 70.1 per cent during the second year, and remaining high at 68.1 per cent in the third year. Policymakers should consider these findings when choosing how to increase life jacket use. Thomas Mangione, Wendy Chow, Journal of Public Health Policy, 2014.